Учебно-методический комплекс По дисциплине «Страноведение» для студентов специальности 050119 «Иностранный язык : два иностранных яз - korshu.ru o_O
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Учебно-методический комплекс По дисциплине «Страноведение» для студентов специальности - страница №1/5




Министерство образования и науки Республики Казахстан
Университет «Сырдария»


Филологический факультет


Кафедра «Иностранных языков»
Учебно-методический комплекс
По дисциплине «Страноведение»

для студентов специальности

050119 «Иностранный язык : два иностранных языка»


С И Л Л А Б У С

Кредит №1

Жетысай – 2005

Составила: Жусупбекова Фатима Алихановна
Лектор: Жусупбекова Фатима Алихановна

Кафедра иностранного языка, № 1 корпус, 16 кабинет

Телефон: 2-15

Время проведения на кафедре: от 830 - 1800





  1. Время и место проведения курса.





Ф.И.О.

Время и место проведения курса


Связывающая

информация



Лекционные

занятия


СРСП

Телефон

1

Жусупбекова Фатима Алихановна



Лекция

Время:_______

Ауд._________

Время:_______

Ауд._________


Тел:______________

Каб:______________

Корпус:___________


2

Жусупбекова Фатима Алихановна


Практика

Время:_______

Ауд._________

Время:_______

Ауд._________


Тел:______________

Каб:______________

Корпус:___________




2.Пререквизиты и постреквизиты курса.
Пре реквизиты- дисциплины, изучаемые в обязательном порядке до страноведения
ПУПР ( I курс) Введение в специальности Казахский \Русский язык Введение в языкознание , Практическая грамматика ,Практическая фонетика

Постреквизи-ты-изучение которых базируется на изучения страноведения

ПУПР ( II курс) , История языка, Стилистика, Лексикология.

Министерство образования и науки Республики Казахстан


Университет «Сырдария»


Филологический факультет
Кафедра «Иностранных языков»
Учебно-методический комплекс
По дисциплине «Страноведение»

для студентов специальности

050119 «Иностранный язык : два иностранных языка»
С И Л Л А Б У С

Кредит №1


Форма обучения: дневная

Курс: 2, семестр 3, кредит 1.

Лекционные занятия: 18 ч

Семинарские занятия: 16 ч

СРС: 6ч


СРСП: 5ч

Всего : 45ч

Текущий контроль 2

Промежуточный контроль 1

Всего баллов по кредиту: 100
Жетысай – 2005

Составила: преподаватель Жусупбекова Фатима Алихановна



Учебно –методический комплекс.

По дисциплине «Страноведение»для студентов специальности 050119 «Иностранный язык : два иностранных языка


Учебно-методический комплекс составлен на основе типовой программе

Индекс типовой программы:




Учебно-методический комплекс обсуждён на заседании кафедры

№ Протокола_______________ «________»2005 г.

Завкафедра_______________________________

Одобрен на методическом совете факультета

№ Протокола_______________ «________»2005 г.

председатель методического совета_______________________________

Одобрен на Совете факультета

№ Протокола_______________ «________»2005 г.

Председатель Совета факультета_______________________________


Согласован с заведующими кафедрами, обучающей студентов по специальностям

050102 «Педагогика и методика начального обучения»,

подпись______________

Содержание




  1. Абстракт

  2. Цели и задачи курса

  3. Выписка из рабочей учебной программы

  4. Сведения о структуре занятий

  5. Правила для студентов

  6. Распределение часов

  7. Содержание лекционных занятий

  8. Содержание семинарских занятий

  9. Содержание СРС

  10. Содержание СРСП

  11. Контрольные вопросы

  12. Система рейтингового контроля академических знаний студентов

  13. Карта учебного процесса по дисциплине.

  14. Литература



  1. Абстракт

Учебно-методический комплекс по «Страноведению» для студентов специальности 050119 «Иностранный язык : два иностранных языка» содержит необходимый учебно-методический материал для эффективной организации учебного процесса. Целью учебно-методического комплекса является достижение высокого уровня усвоения студентами данной дисциплины при использовании в учебном процессе кредитной технологии.

В рабочей учебной программе указаны виды занятий с количеством часов: ЛЗ- лекционное занятие, Семинарское занятие, СРС- самостоятельная работа студентов. СРСП- самостоятельная работа студентов с преподавателем.

Каждый кредит включает несколько видов контроля: ВК, ТК, ПК, РК. ВК – входной контроль, предваряющий кредит, включает задания по проверке исходного уровня знаний по изучаемой теме. ТК- текущий контроль, содержащий контрольные задание по пройденной теме. ПК- промежуточный контроль по кредиту. РК- контроль по разделу. Программа обучения содержит формы контроля и оценки знаний и умений студентов.



Цели и задачи курса

Курс страноведения имеет целью дать студентам целостное представление о стране изучаемого языка(СИЯ),вооружить их комплексом знаний о СИЯ, включающим в себя сведения исторического,географического,экономического,общественно-политического,культурного и социального характера.

Курс направлен на формирование страноведческой и лингвострановедческой компетенции, необходимой для адекватного владения иностранным языком как средством общения.

Курс читается на иностранном языке и имеет также чисто практическую цель – обогащение словарного запаса студентов страноведческим релевантной лексикой, фразеологией, терминологией и совершенствование знаний изучаемого языка.

Задачи курса заключается в том, чтобы студенты могли на основе изучения особенностей экономической, политической и культурной жизни СИЯ обобщать полученные знания, проводить аналогии с процессами, происходящими в Республики Казахстан. Изменения в политической, экономической и общественной жизни Казахстана, расширение его международных связей диктует необходимость знания норм политической культуры, основных тенденций развития демократии и конституционных основ государства, культурных традиций других стран. Курс включает изучение традиций и обычаев СИЯ, что способствует не только воспитанию толерантности и уважение к культуре другого народа, но и более глубокому пониманию своеобразия своего народа. Сравнительные исследования по этническим группам помогают находить ответы на сложные вопросы межэтнических отношений.

Одной из задач курса является также привитие студентам навыков работы со словарями энциклопедического характера, с периодическими из

Изданиями СИЯ с целью извлечениями страноведческой информации, что формирует базисные навыки научно-исследовательской работы. Работа по страноведению предполагает повышение познавательной активности через увеличение объема самостоятельной работы.

Реализация курса страноведения осуществляется в тесной связи с практической речи, литературой СИЯ, историей языка, лексикологией, фразеологией.

1. Студенты должны знать:

-физическую и экономическую географию СИЯ;

-общественно-политическое устройство;

-государственную структуру власти и политическую систему СИЯ;

-административно-территориальное деление;

-политическое, экономическое, социальные и культурные процессы, происходящие в СИЯ в настоящее время;

-традиции, обычаи, национальные праздники;

-место СИЯ в системе мировой цивилизации;

-смысловую структуру страноведческих реалий, устойчивых идиоматичных словосочетаний изучаемого языка.
2.Студенты должны уметь:

-анализировать и обобщать политические, экономические, социальные и культурные процессы, происходящие в СИЯ;

-сопоставлять факты, проводить аналогии с процессами в Республики Казахстан;

-сравнивать традиции и обычаи народов, выявлять общее и специфичное;

-самостоятельно работать с энциклопедическими словарями, периодическими изданиями СИЯ;

-пополнять словарный запас страноведческих значимыми реалиями, фразеологизмами, терминами из различных областей знаний с целью полноценной коммуникации

3.Занятия по страноведению проводятся в форме лекций семинаров и индивидуальных консультаций по СРС.
Выписка из рабочей учебной программы.

№ кредита




Общее количество часов

В том числе

Семестр

Итоговый контроль

Лекционные

занятия

Семинарские

занятия

СРС



СРСП









№1кредит

45

18

16

6

5

3


Экзамен









Структура занятий.
Лекционное занятие. На лекционных занятиях студентам будет предложен краткое содержание лекции по изучению, закреплению и повторению знаний по изучаемой теме. На каждое лекционное занятие, дается использованная литература.

Семинарское занятие. На семинарское занятие предлагаются темы для изучения, анализа, выявления актуальные проблемы и их решения.

СРС. СРС предусматривает выполнение заданий самостоятельно. Кроме того даются на изучение некоторые темы (страноведенческие), рассчитанные на самостоятельное изучение.

СРСП. СРСП- самостоятельная работа студентов с преподавателем.



Требования к студентам.

    1. Не опаздывать на занятия.

    2. Во время занятия не разговаривать, не читать газету, не жевать жевательную резину, отключить сотовые телефоны.

    3. Являться на занятие в соответствующей одежде.

    4. Студент обязан посещать все занятия, выполнять СРС

    5. В случае пропуска занятий по уважительной причине – делать отработки по пропущенной теме.


Распределение часов


П/н


Тема лекционных занятий

Кол-во часов

Семинарские занятия

СРС

СРСП

1

Geographical survey.

2

2

2




2


The economy of the Great Britain.


2

2




2

3

The composition of the country.

2

2







4
Political system

2

2




2

5
Education in Great Britain.

2

2

2




6

The Arts in Britain.

2

2







7

Holidays

2

2

2




8

The Capital of Great Britain

2







1

9

The Places to see in Brirain

2

2










Итого:

18

16

6

5

Министерство образования и науки Республики Казахстан


Университет «Сырдария»


Филологический факультет
Кафедра «Иностранных языков»
По дисциплине «Страноведение»

для студентов специальности

050119 «Иностранный язык : два иностранных языка»


Лекционные занятия

Жетысай – 2005




План лекционных занятий
Лекция №1
1.Тема: GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY
План: 1 Geographical Position.

2. Nature.

3.Coasts.

4. Relief.

5. Climate.



6. Inland Waters.

7. Vegetation.

8. Animal Life.

  1. Geographical Position.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and North­ern Ireland is situated on the British Isles - a large group of islands lying off the north-western coast of Europe and separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover in the south and the North Sea in the east.

The British Isles consist of two large islands — Great Britain and Ireland — separated by the Irish Sea, and a lot of small islands, the main of which are the Isle of Wight in the English Channel, Angle sea and the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea, the Hebrides— a group of islands off the north-western coast of Scotland, and two groups of islands lying to the north of Scotland: the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands.

Historically the territory of the United Kingdom is divided into four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

The total area of the United Kingdom is 244 square kilometers.

2. Nature.

Great Britain is situated in the temperate zone of Europe. The nature of Great Britain is greatly af­fected by the sea: there is no place situated more than 100-120 km from the seashore, in the northern parts only 40-60 km.

The territory of Great Britain can be divided into three natural regions:


  1. Scotland with highland and upland relief and coniferous and mixed forests;

  2. Wales and mountainous England with upland considerably cut by ravines and valleys and covered with meadows, moorland and cultivated farmland ,with patches of broadleaf forest;

  3. South-east England with plain landscape, fer­tile soils, the predominance of cultivated farmland, with patches of broadleaf forest.


3. Coasts.

The coastline of Great Britain is greatly indented, especially in the west and north-west where the moun­tains come close to the coast. The coasts of Scotland, as well as the coasts of the Hebrides, the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands, are cut by numer­ous fiords. In the south and east the land gradually slopes down towards the sea, and the coasts are sandy maid gentle, here and there interrupted by the ends of hill-ranges, which form low cliffs.



4. Relief.
The general slope of the land is from north-west to south-east.

The mountains cover the greater part of northern, western and middle Great Britain. They can be divid­ed into the following groups:

1) The Highlands of Scotland occupy most of the land to the north-west of a line drawn from Glasgow to Aberdeen. Two parts of the Highlands - the North-western Highlands and the Grampians - are separated by a narrow valley, through which runs the Caledonian Canal. At the south-western end of the Highlands rises Ben Nevis, 1343 m, the highest mountain of the British Isles.


  1. The Central Plain of Scotland separates the Highlands from the Southern Uplands plants of Scotland. The Southern Uplands and the Pennines, which stretch in the north-south direction across the north­ern and middle parts of England, form a practically continuous group.

3) Nearly the whole of Wales is occupied by the Cumbrians. The highest peak of the Cumbrians is Showdon, 1085 m.

The south-eastern part of England is lowland, in­terrupted in places by low chalk ridges.



5. Climate.
Great Britain enjoys the humid and mild marine West-Coast climate with warm winters and cool sum­mers and a lot of rainfall throughout the year.

The prevailing winds blow from the south-west. As these winds blow from the ocean, they are mild in winter and cool in summer, and are heavily charged with moisture at all times. As they approach the moun­tainous areas near the west coasts, they rise up the mountain slopes. Their temperature drops, which causes condensation of moisture in the form of rain. Therefore the wettest parts of Britain are those areas where high mountains lie near the west coast: the western Highlands of Scotland, the Lake District and North Wales. The eastern part of Britain is said to be in the rain-shadow, as the winds lose most of their moisture in their passage over the highlands of the west.

All parts of the British Isles receive rain at any time of the year. Still autumn and winter are the wettest seasons, except in the Thames district, where most rain falls in the summer half of the year. Ox­ford, for example, has 29 per cent of its rain in summer and only 22 per cent in winter.

As to temperature, Great Britain has warmer win­ters than any other district in the same latitude. It is due in large measure to the prevalence of mild south-west winds. Another factor is the Gulf Stream which flows from the Gulf of Mexico and brings much warmth from the equatorial regions to north-west­ern Europe.


6. Inland Waters.
The rivers of Britain are short; their direction and character are determined by the position of the moun­tains.

Most of the rivers flow in the eastward direction since the west coast is mountainous.

Due to the humid climate and abundant rainfall, the water level in the rivers is always high. The riv­ers seldom freeze in winter, most of them remain ice-free. Many of the rivers are joined together by ca­nals. This system of rivers and canals provides a good means of cheap inland water transport.

British rivers are not navigable for ocean ships, they form deep estuaries,and strong tides pene­trating into them prevent the formation of deltas.Most of the large ports of Great Britain are situated in the estuaries.

The most important rivers are the Severn, flow­ing from the Cumbrian Mountains in Wales into the Bristol Channel, the Thames, flowing across the plains of south-eastern England and emptying into the North Sea, the Tyne and the Trent , flowing from the eastern slopes of the Pennines to the North Sea, the Mersey, flowing down the western slopes of the Pennines and emptying into the Irish Sea at Liv­erpool, and the Clyde in Scotland, which flows west across the Southern Uplands and on which the port of

Glasgow is situated.

Owing to the fact that British lakes are rather small and have no outlets,they afford limited economic possibilities in the system of navigable waterways. But most of them, especially those situated in the counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and north Lancashire, are famous for their unique beauty and picturesque surroundings. Famous is the English Lake District, occupying a comparatively small area. It is a place of steep ridges and deep valleys, smooth slopes and deep lakes,ravines, waterfalls and green meadows. The Lake District is one of the most popular holiday districts in Great Britain.
7. Vegetation.

In the mountainous regions of Great Britain the vegetation is represented by coniferous and mixed forests with the predominance of pine, oak and birch. Many parts of highland Britain have only thin, poor soils. As a result, there are large stretches of moorland in the Highlands of Scotland, the Pennines, the Lake District, the mountains of Wales and in some parts of north-east and south-west England. In most of these areas the farmers have cultivated only the valley lands and the plains where the soils are deeper and richer.

With its mild climate and varied soils, British. has a rich natural vegetation. When the islands were first settled, oak forests probably covered the greater part of the lowland. In the course of the centuries,nearly all the forests have been cut down, and now woodlands occupy only about 7 per cent of the surface of the country. The greatest density of woodland occurs in the north and east of Scotland, in some parts of south-east England and on the Welsh border. The most common trees are oak, beech, ash and elm, and in Scotland also pine and birch.

Midland Britain appears to be well wooded be­cause of the numerous hedges and isolated trees. Hedges are a typical feature of countryside land­scape in England. Farming land is divided into fields by hedges or stone walls. Most of countryside Eng­land is agricultural land, about a third of which is arable, and the rest is pasture and meadow.


8. Animal Life.

The animal life of the British Isles is now much poorer than it was a few centuries ago. With the disappearance of forests, many forest animals, in­cluding the wolf, the bear, the boar, the deer and the Irish elk, have become practically extinct. There are foxes in most rural areas, and otters are found along many rivers and streams. Of smaller animals there are mice, rats, hedgehogs, moles, squirrels, hares, rabbits and weasels.

There are a lot of birds, including many song-birds. Blackbirds,sparrows and starlings are probably most common. There are many sea-birds, which nest round the coasts and often fly far inland in search of food or shelter in rough weather.

Литература

1.Ю.Б. Голицинский “Great Britain”

Издательство КАРО Санкт-Петербург 2004

2.В.Ф.Сатинова “Британия и Британцы”

Минск “Вышейшая школа” 2004




Лекция №2
Тема: The Economy of the United Kingdom.

План: 1.Mineral Resources.

2.Britain’s Industry, Technology and Trade.

3.The British money system.

4.Agriculture and Fisheries in Britain

1.Mineral Resources.
Great Britain is rich in coal. There are rich coal basins in or Northumberland, Lancashire, Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, South Wales, North Wales and near Glasgow.

Among other mineral resources, iron ores found alongside coal layers are of primary importance, but the iron content of most of the ores is very low.There are tin and copper mines in Cornwall and Devonshire, copper and lead mines in England. Lead and silver ores are also mined in Derbyshire and Cumberland and Lancashire.


2. Britain’s Industry, Technology and Trade

The year 1750 is considered the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Britain which had a great effect on British social and economic life and helped to develop an agricultural country into an industrial one. Britain is famous for such epoch-making inventions as the steam engine and the first machinery for weaving textiles. Later, British inventors and engineers gave the world the first rail­ways, steamships, pneumatic tyres, miners' safety lamps, mechani­cal reapers4 and many other things that are now familiar everywhere.

Today, in a new age of modern technology, Britain has made important advances in such industries as electronics, tele- and inter­net-communication equipment, coal mining, engineering, manufac­turing of cars, ships and aircraft, steel and chemical production. At the same time Britain has harnessed traditional craftsmanship to modern methods of production those items for which Britain is justly famous, such as pottery, glassware, woolen and leather goods.

Engineering industries produce many leading exports: electri­cal machinery, cars, tractors and commercial vehicles, bicycles and precision instruments of many kinds. The UK is also known as the producer and exporter of textile, aircraft and navigation equip­ments.

Among the most important and big industrial cities in Britain such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool, Cardiff and others, London comes first. It is an important center of light engi­neering and chemicals. It also produces food, clothes and other goods. Birmingham and Sheffield are famous for their iron and steel industry and heavy engineering. Manchester and Leeds are chief centres of cotton and woolen industries. Newcastle is an exporter of coal and ships. Glasgow is the biggest seaport and trading centre of Scotland.

Britain is one of the largest trading centres. Over a quarter of total exports go to Commonwealth countries and almost a third to Western Europe. Among Britain's chief trading partners are the USA, Canada, Australia, India, New Zealand, France and others.

Britain is one of the world's biggest markets for food and raw materials. Britain's role as a trading nation and as the centre of the Sterling Area, which holds almost a quarter of the world's popula­tion, includes a vast network of financial services, centred on the City of London. With its many famous institutions, such as the Bank of England, the Stock Exchang and Lloyd's, and its international markets for commodities such as rubber, metals and tea, the City has held a place of first importance in world trade for over a century.
3.The British money system.
Britain's currency is the pound sterling, written as £ before a fig­ure. The British pound contains one hundred pence, written as "p" with figures. In everyday speech the contraction "p", pronounced [pi:], is generally used instead of the full word "pence".

Before the British money system was reformed, there were 20 shillings in one pound and 12 pence in one shilling, thus 240 pence were in one pound. It was rather inconvenient in use.

The 1971 reform of the British money system introduced the deci­mal principle. There are now one hundred pence in one pound. Pence coins are silver-coloured (50p, 20p, Юр and 5p) and copper-coloured (2p and lp). Most pence coins are round but the 50p and 20p pieces are not, they have seven curved sides. As for the pound coins, they are round and gold-coloured with the exception of the £2 piece which is silver-coloured and has a gold edge. Pound coins have the Queen's head on one side and one of four designs, English, Scottish, Welsh or Northern Irish, on the other. Paper notes worth £5, £10, £20 or £50 have also the Queen's head, on one side and a famous person, e.g. Charles Dickens, on the other.
4.Agriculture and Fisheries in Britain
Although Britain is a highly industrialized country, agriculture is still one of her most important industries. Just over 700,000 farm­workers provide over half the food needed by some 55.5 million people. This is achieved by widespread1 use of machinery (there are over 500,000 tractors in use) and by making the best use of the results of research and scientific experiments.

For a small country, Britain has a great variety of soil, climate and types of farming; ranging from beef breeding in Scotland and sheep farming in the mountains of Wales to growing crops, mainly wheat, barley, oats and potatoes, in the large, flat, fertile areas of the eastern counties.

Over 200 years ago British livestock breeders developed the principles which have produced some of the world's finest pedigree cattle, sheep, pigs and horses. Famous breeds of cattle — Hereford, Shorthorn, Aberdeen, Angus, Ayrshire and others — have laid the foundation of pedigree herds in North and South America, Australia and many other countries.

Agricultural research is carried out at over 50 research stations in pest control, fertilisers, plant and animal diseases and the improve­ment of crops and livestock. Their work gives valuable aid to farmers in the developing countries, which send many students to Britain.

Sea fishing, round the coasts of Britain and in distant waters, is of great importance in Scotland and in the north-east of England. About two-fifth of Britain's 22,000 fishermen are employed in the Scottish ports, such as Aberdeen, Fraserburgh and Granton. Distant-water vessels fish the seas around Labrador, Newfoundland, Greenland and Iceland.

Research into improved methods of fishing, processing and stor­age plays a big part in modernising an ancient industry.

Литература

1.Ю.Б. Голицинский “Great Britain”

Издательство КАРО Санкт-Петербург 2004

2.В.Ф.Сатинова “Британия и Британцы”

Минск “Вышейшая школа” 2004

Лекция №3
Тема: The Composition of the country.

План: 1. England;

2.Scotland;

3.Wales;

4.Northern Ireland
The territory of the United Kingdom of Great Brit­ain and Northern Ireland is historically divided into four parts:


  1. England; 2) Scotland; 3)Wales; 4) Northern Ireland.


1. England.

Of the four countries which make up the United Kingdom, England is the largest. It occupies an area of 131,8 thousand sq. km.

England borders on Scotland in the north. In the east it is washed by the North Sea. In the south it is separated from the continent by the English Chan­nel. In the west it borders on Wales and is washed by the Bristol Channel and by the Irish Sea.

The highest part of England is in the west, from where the land gradually slopes down to the east.

The Atlantic Ocean washes the rocky and broken west coast of England, Wales and Scotland and is gradually wearing it away, leaving caves and sandy beaches. On the east coast the land is low and sandy.

The rivers flowing to the east and emptying into the North Sea form deep estuaries well protected from the sea. The greatest port of the country Lon­don is conveniently situated in the Thames estu­ary.

The white chalk cliffs of the south coast washed by the English Channel can be seen from many miles out at sea.

As concerns the relief, England can be divided into Nothern England Mostly taken up by the low Pennine Mountains, the Central Plain, lowland South-West England.


2.Scotland

Scotland is the most northen of the countries that constitute the United Kingdom. It occupies an area of 78,8 thousand sq.km.

Scotland is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the north and west and the east.

The coastline of Scotland is greatly indented. In many places deep fiords Penetrate very far inland.

Geografically the territory of Scotland can be divided into three regions:the Northen Highlands, the Central Lowlands and the Southern Uplands .

The Highlands are the highest mountains in the British Isles. Their Average height does not exceed 457 m above sea level, though some peaks are much higher, rising over a thousand metres. Ben Nevis, the highest peak in the British Isles, reaches the height of 1343 m.

The Lowlands are the cradle of the Scottish nation They are densely populated.

The Southern Uplands seldom rise over 579 m above sea level. It is one the most sparsely populated districts in Great Britain.



3.Wales.

Wales is a peninsula washed by the sea on three sides: the Bristol Channel in the south, the St.George’s Channel in the west , and Irish Sea in the north.Its territory is 20,8 thousand sq.km.

Geographically Wales may be considered part of highland Britain, the Cumbrian Mountains occupying most of the land. It is an area of high mountains, deep valleys, waterfalls and lakes.

Wales is a region of heavy rainfall brought by the prevailing west winds from the Atlantic Ocean. The valleys are sheltered by the high mountains from cold east winds. The climate is rather mild.

Wales has never been densely populated. The Welsh have kept their own language, but English is spoken in town as well.


  1. Northern Ireland.

Northern Ireland occupies the north-eastern part of Ireland, which is separated from the island of Great Britain by the North Channel. In the south-west: Northern Ireland borders on the Irish Republic.

Almost all the area of Northern Ireland is a plain of volcanic origin, deepening in the centre to form the largest lake of the British Isles, Lough Neagh.

The greatly indented coastline of Northern Ireland is abundant in rocks and cliffs.

Northern Ireland has a typical oceanic climate with mild damp winters (the mean temperature in Janu­ary is +4, +5) and cool rainy summers (the mean temperature in July is +14, +15).

Forests are rather scarce, moors and meadows prevail.

Northern Ireland is mostly an agrarian district. On small farms they grow crops, especially oats, vegetables and potatoes. Large areas are taken up by meadows, where cattle graze. On the river banks and on the coasts the population is engaged in fishing.

Литература

1.Ю.Б. Голицинский “Great Britain”

Издательство КАРО Санкт-Петербург 2004

2.В.Ф.Сатинова “Британия и Британцы”

Минск “Вышейшая школа” 2004 Литература



Лекция №4
Тема: POLITICAL SYSTEM
План: 1.The head of the country.

2. The Constitution.

3.Three Branches of Government.

1)The Legislative branch

2) The executive branch

3)The judicial branch.

4.Political Parties.

5. The British Commonwealth of Nations.


1.The head of the country.

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. Official­ly the head of the state is the king or queen. The power of the monarch is not absolute but constitutional. The monarch acts only on the advice of the ministers.

The hereditary principle upon which the monar­chy is founded is strictly observed. The now reigning monarch, Queen Elizabeth, II is a descendant of the Saxon king Egbert.

The monarch, be it king or queen, is the head of the executive body, an integral part of the legisla­ture, the head of the judicial body, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the crown, the head of the Established Church of England and the head of the British Commonwealth of Nations.


2. The Constitution.
Practically speaking, there is no written constitu­tion in Great Britain.The term "English Constitu­tion" means the leading principles, conventions and laws, many of which have been existing for centu­ries, though they have undergone modifications and extensions in agreement with the advance of civiliza­tion. These principles are expressed in such docu­ments of major importance as Magna Сarta , a fa­mous document in English history agreed upon in 1215 by King John and the barons, which set cer­tain limits on royal power and which was later re­garded as a law stating basic civil rights; Habeas Corpus Act, a law passed in 1679, which guarantees to a person arrested the right to appear in court of justice so that the jury should decide whether he is guilty or not guilty; The Bill of Rights, an act of Parliament passed in 1689, which confirmed certain rights of the people; the laws deciding the succession of the royal family, and a number of constitutional acts, separate laws and agreements.

3.Three Branches of Government.
Power in Great Britain is divided among three branches:

1.The Legislative branch

2. The executive branch

3.The judicial branch.
The legislative branch is represented by Parliament, which consists of two chambers, or houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

Parliament in Britain has existed since 1265. Hav­ing been organized in the reign of King Edward I, it is the oldest parliament in the world.

The House of Lords consists of more than 1000 peers, including the "lords spiritual": the Arch­bishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York, and 24 bishops of the Church of England, The peers (with the exception of the "lords spiritual") have the right to sit in Parliament during their lifetime and transmit their right to their eldest sons.

During the pre­sent century a new practice has appear red: the practice of "creating" new peers. They are cal­led "life peers", be­cause their children do not inherit their titles like the chil­dren of hereditary peers. New peers are created by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minster. Sometimes a prominent politician is made a peer, sometimes a leading civil servant who has served the country well. As a re­sult, about one-third of the Lords today are not rep­resentatives of hereditary nobility but company di­rectors, bankers,newspaper proprietors and other businessmen.



The members of the House of Commons are elected by a general election.

The whole country is divided into constituencies, every one of which chooses one delegate. Big cities are divided into several constitu­encies each. Members of the House of Commons are elected for five years.

Parliament's main function is to make laws. The procedure of making new laws is as follows: a mem­ber of the House of Commons proposes a bill, which is discussed by the House. If the bill is approved, it is sent to the House of Lords, which, in case it does not like it, has the right to veto it for one year. If the House of Commons passes the bill again the follow­ing year, the House of Lords cannot reject it. Finally the bill is sent to the Queen for the "royal assent", after which it becomes a law.


The executive branch is headed by the Prime Min­ister, who is appointed by the king (queen). Accord­ing to tradition, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party that has won the elections and has the ma­jority in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister appoints the ministers to compose the government. After that the newly appointed ministers are pre­sented to the monarch for the formal approval. The most important ministers of the government (about twenty) form the Cabinet.Members of the Cabinet make joint decisions or advise the Prime Minister.

The main function of the executive branch of the government is to Administer the laws (to see to it that the laws are carried out, actually to rule the country).The judicial branch interprets the laws. The highest judicial body is the Supreme Court of Judicature, which consists of two divisions: the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal. It is often said that English law is superior to the law of most other countries. Indeed, the English judicial system contains many rules which protect the individual against arbitrary action by the police and the government.



4.Political Parties.

The two main political parties of Great Britain are the Conservative party and the Labour Party.

The Conservative Party is right –wing ,tending to be opposed to great and sudden changes in the established order of society. It is against state control of industry.

The Labour Party, sometimes called the Socialists, has close association with the Trade Union, although it is now not as left –wing as it used to be.It has many supporters, especially among working-class and middle-class people.



5. The British Commonwealth of Nations.
For centuries British sailors and merchants trav­elled all over the world, discovered new lands and claimed them for England. Large territories in North America, Africa, the whole continent of Austral­ia , New Zealand, India and a lot of islands in the ocean got under British rule. Thus, gradually, in the course of centuries, the huge British Empire came into being. After World War II, with the growth of national liberation movement in the world, the coun­tries which were dependent Great Britain and formed parts of the British Empire, began claiming independence. As a result of this movement, the British Empire fell apart. However, centuries-long economic, cultural and political ties of these former colonies and dominions with Great Britain were too strong for them to completely break away from each other, and it was found advisable to maintain the old ties. A new organization was established: the British Commonwealth of Nations, including about 50 inde­pendent states which were formerly parts of the Brit­ish Empire. The British Commonwealth of Nations encourages trade and friendly relations among its members. The Queen is the official head of the Com­monwealth.
Литература
1.Ю.Б. Голицинский “Great Britain”

Издательство КАРО Санкт-Петербург 2004

2.В.Ф.Сатинова “Британия и Британцы”

Минск “Вышейшая школа” 2004



Лекция№5


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