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МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ

Упр. 460. Переведите на русский язык.

1. Mike can run very fast. 2. They can under­stand French. 3. Kate can speak English well. 4. My brother can come and help you in the gar­den. 5. Can you speak Spanish? 6. Can your broth­er help me with mathematics? 7. His little sister can walk already. 8. The children cannot carry this box: it is too heavy. 9. My friend cannot come in time. 10. This old woman cannot sleep at night. 11. His sister can cook very well. 12. I can sing, but I cannot dance.



Упр. 461. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол can (could).

1. Я умею говорить по-английски. 2. Мой папа не умеет говорить по-немецки. 3. Ты умеешь гово­рить по-французски? 4. Моя сестра не умеет катать­ся на коньках. 5. Ты можешь переплыть эту реку? 6. Я не могу выпить это молоко. 7. Она не может вас понять. 8. Ты умел плавать в прошлом году? 9. В прошлом году я не умел кататься на лыжах, а сейчас умею. 10. Вы не можете мне сказать, как доехать до вокзала? 11. Не могли ли бы вы мне помочь? 12. Я не могу перевести это предложение. 13. Никто не мог мне помочь. 14. Где тут можно купить хлеб? 15. Твоя бабушка умела танцевать, когда была молодая? — Да, она и сейчас умеет.

ТО BE ABLE TO

Эквивалент глагола CAN

Не is able to do it. (может, в состоянии)

Не was able to do it yesterday, (мог)

He will be able to do it tomorrow, (сможет)

He has been able to swim since childhood.

(умеет с детства)



Упр. 462. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя выражение to be able to.

1. Ты сможешь сделать эту работу завтра? 2. Я думаю, она не сумеет решить эту задачу. 3. Завтра я буду свободен и смогу помочь тебе. 4. Мы сможем поехать в Нью-Йорк в будущем году? 5. Ты сможешь починить мой магнитофон? 6. Вчера я не смог повидать директора, так как он был на конференции, но сегодня после рабо­ты я смогу это сделать.



Упр. 463. Перепишите следующие предложе­ния, добавляя слова, данные в скобках. Замени­те модальный глагол can (could) выражением to be able to, где это необходимо.

1. I can give you my book for a couple of days (after I have read it). 2. He can ski (for ten years). 3. We knew that she could swim (since a child). 4. You cannot take part in this serious sport compe­tition (until you have mastered good skills). 5. I could not solve the problem (before he explained it to me). 6. They can (never) appreciate your kind­ness. 7. I was sure you could translate that article (after you had translated so many texts on phys­ics). 8. You can go to the country (when you have passed your last examination). 9. We can pass to the next exercise (when we have done this one).

MAY

Разрешение (можно)

You may take my pen. (можете) You may not touch it. (нельзя) May I come in? (можно?)

В косвенной речи: Mother said that

I might play, (сказала, что можно)

Предположение (может быть)

It may rain soon, (может быть, пойдет дождь) Take care: you may fall, (можешь упасть)



Упр. 464. Переведите на русский язык.

1. May I go to the post-office with Mike? 2. May I take Pete's bag? 3. Don't give the vase to the child: he may break it. 4. May we take notes with a pencil? 5. You may not cross the street when the light is red. 6. May I shut the door? 7. May I in­vite Nick to our house? 8. You may go now. 9. If you have done your homework, you may go for a walk. 10. Don't go to the wood alone: you may lose your way. 11. It stopped raining, and mother told us that we might go out. 12. May children play with scissors?



Упр. 465. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол may,

1. Можно мне войти? 2. Можно, я пойду гу­лять? 3. Если твоя работа готова, можешь идти домой. 4. Учитель сказал, что мы можем идти домой. 5. Доктор говорит, что я уже могу ку­паться. 6. Папа сказал, что мы можем идти в кино одни. 7. Я думал, что мне можно смотреть телевизор. 8. Если ты не наденешь пальто, ты можешь заболеть. 9. Не уходи из дома: мама может скоро прийти, а у нее нет ключа. 10. Будь осторожен: ты можешь упасть. 11. Не трогай собаку: она может укусить тебя. 12. Мы, может быть, поедем за город в воскресенье. 13. Он мо­жет забыть об этом. 14. Скоро может пойти дождь.



ТО BE ALLOWED TO

Эквивалент глагола MAY



We are allowed to stay at home.

(нам разрешают) We were allowed to stay at home.

(нам разрешили) We shall be allowed to stay at home.

(нам разрешат)

Упр.466. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя выражение to be allowed to.

1. Мне разрешают пользоваться папиным маг­нитофоном. 2. Дети уже большие. Им разрешают ходить в школу одним. 3. Ему не разрешают ку­паться в этой реке. 4. Вчера ей позволили прийти домой в десять часов. 5. Нам не позволяют разго­варивать на уроках. 6. Тебе позволили взять эту книгу? 7. Я думаю, мне не разрешат поехать с тобой за город. 8. Тебе разрешат пойти гулять, когда ты сделаешь уроки. 9. Тебе разрешали хо­дить на озеро, когда ты был маленький? 10. Ког­да мне разрешат есть мороженое?



Упр. 467. Вставьте модальный глагол may (might) или выражение to be allowed to. Встав­ляйте to be allowed to только в тех случаях, где may (might) употребить нельзя.

1. ... I bring my sister to the party? 2. He asked if he ... bring his sister to the party. 3. After they had finished their homework, the children ... watch TV. 4. He ... join the sports section as soon as he is through with his medical examination. 5. Becky's mother said that everybody ... take part in the picnic. 6. He ... go homo if ho likes. 7. As sооn as the boy ... leave the room, ho smiled a happy smile and ran out to join his friends outside. 8. The doctor says I am much better. I ... get up for a few hours every day.



Упр. 468. Вставьте модальные глаголы may или can.

1. I ... finish the work tomorrow if no one both­ers me any more. 2. ... we come and see you next Sunday at three o'clock in the afternoon? 3. What time is it? — It ... be about six o'clock, but I am not sure. 4. Only a person who knows the language very well ... answer such a question. 5. ... I come in? 6. Let me look at your exercises. I ... be able to help you. 7. I ... not swim, because until this year the doctor did not allow me to be more than two minutes in the water. But this year he says I ... stay in for fifteen minutes if I like, so I am going to learn to swim. 8. Libraries are quite free, and any one who likes ... get books there. 9. I ... come and see you tomorrow if I have time. 10. Take your raincoat with you: it ... rain today. 11. Do you think you ... do that?



Упр. 469. Вставьте модальные глаголы may или can.

1. You ... come in when you have taken off your boots. 2. Be careful: you ... spill the milk if you carry it like that. 3. Most children ... slide on the ice very well. 4. I don't think I ... be here by elev­en o'clock tomorrow, but I ... be. 5. ... you see anything in this inky darkness? 6. You ... go when you have finished your compositions. 7. What shall we do if the train is late? It ... be late, you know, after the terrible snowstorms we've had. 8. When ... you come arid see me? — Let me see: I ... not come tomorrow, for I must be at the meeting, but on Sunday I'll find time. Yes, you ... expect me on Sunday about three o'clock. Will that be all right?



Упр. 470. Вставьте модальные глаголы may (might) или can (could).

1. ... I use your pen? 2. ... I find a pen on that table? 3. You ... read this book: you know the lan­guage well enough. 4. You ... take this book: I don't need it. 5. ... I help you? 6. ... I ask you to help me? 7. ... you help me? 8. I ... not imagine her speaking in public: I knew that she was so shy. 9. Something was wrong with the car: he ... not start it. 10. A fool ... ask more questions than a wise man ... answer. 11. She asked me if she ... use my telephone. 12. The school was silent: noth­ing ... be heard in the long dark corridors. 13. Waiting ... be endless, you know. 14. ... you tell me the nearest way to the city museum? 15. They ... think that I am too weak to take part in the excursion, but I am strong enough to do any kind of hard work, indeed. 16. He knew this period of history very well: he had read everything on the subject he ... find in the rich university library.

MUST

Долженствование

You must respect your parents, (должны) You must not go there, (нельзя) Must I learn it by heart? (должен?)



Предположение должно быть

It must be cold outside, (должно быть)



Упр. 471. Переведите на русский язык.

1. You must work hard at your English. 2. You must learn the words. 3. Must we learn the poem today? 4. It must be very difficult to learn Chinese. 5. You must not talk at the lessons. 6. Everybody must come to school in time. 7. Don't ring him up: he must be very busy. 8. You must not make notes in the books. 9. I must help my mother today.



Упр. 472. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол must.

1. Я должна упорно работать над своим анг­лийским. 2. Вы должны внимательно слушать учителя на уроке. 3. Ты должен делать уроки каждый день. 4. Вы не должны забывать о сво­их обязанностях. 5 Вы должны быть осторожны на улице. 6. Она должна быть дома сейчас. 7. Мои друзья, должно быть, в парке. 8. Вы, дол­жно быть, очень голодны. 9. Должно быть, очень трудно решать такие задачи. 10. Я должен се­годня повидать моего друга.



ТО HAVE TO

Эквивалент глагола MUST



have to go there.

(надо) had to go there.

(пришлось) shall have to go there, (придется)

I don't have to go there.

(не надо) I didn't have to go there.

(не пришлось) I shan't have to go there, (не придется)

Do you have to go there? (надо?)

Did you have to go there? (пришлось?)

Will you have to go there? (придется?)

Упр. 473. Переведите на русский язык.

1. I had to do a lot of homework yesterday 2. She had to stay at home because she did not feel well. 3. Pete had to stay at home because it was very cold. 4. Mike had to write this exercise at school because he had not done it at home. 5. They had to call the doctor because the grandmother was ill. 6. Why did you have to stay at home yes­terday? — Because my parents were not at home and I had to look after my little sister. 7. I have not written the composition. I shall have to write it on Sunday. 8. We did not have to buy biscuits because granny had baked a delicious pie. 9. Will you have to get up early tomorrow?



Упр. 474. Перепишите следующие предложе­ния в прошедшем времени.

1 It is already twenty minutes past eight. You must go or you will be late for the first lesson. 2. I am very tired. I feel I must go to bed at once, or I shall fall asleep where I am sitting. 3. We can't wait for them any longer, we must ring them up and find out what has happened. 4. I am think­ing hard, trying to find a solution of the prob­lem. There must be a way out. 5. It is quite clear to everyboby in the family that he must start get­ting ready for his examination instead of wasting time. 6. It is impossible to do anything in such a short time. I must ask the chief to put off my report. 7. I don't mean that you must do every­thing they tell you.



Упр. 475. Перепишите каждое из следующих предложений дважды: в прошедшем и в буду, щем времени. Заменяйте модальные глаголы must и сап эквивалентами, где необходимо.

1. You must listen to the tape-recording of this text several times. 2. You must take your exami­nation in English. 3. She can translate this article without a dictionary. 4. We can't meet them at the station. 5. The doctor must examine the child. 6. He must work systematically if he wants to know French well. 7. This child must spend more time out in the open air. 8. I can't recite this poem. 9. You must take part in this work. 10. He can't join the party because he is busy.



Упр. 476. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол must или его эк­вивалент to have to.

1. Я должна пойти в магазин сегодня, сварить обед сделать уроки пойти в школу написать письмо брату

2. Мне придется пойти в магазин завтра, сварить обед сделать уроки пойти в школу написать письмо брату

3. Мне пришлось пойти в магазин вчера сварить обед сделать уроки пойти в школу написать письмо брату



Упр. i77. Переведите на английский язык сле­дующие вопросы и ответьте на них.

1. Что вы должны сделать сегодня?

2. Что вам придется сделать завтра?

3. Что вам пришлось сделать вчера?



Упр. 478. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальные глаголы must, may или сап.

1. Он сейчас должен быть в своем кабинете. Вы можете поговорить с ним. 2. Можно войти? —- Пожалуйста. 3. Вы должны прочитать этот текст. 4. Может ли он выполнить это задание? 5. Можно мне взять вашу книгу? 6. На уроке английского языка вы должны говорить только по-английски. 7. Мы должны сегодня сдать тет­ради? 8. Можно мне задать вам вопрос? — По­жалуйста. 9. Я не могу пойти о вами в кино, так как я очень занят. 10. Можно здесь курить? — Пожалуйста.



Упр. 479. Заполните пропуски модальными глаголами can, may или must.

  1. What ... we see on this map? 2. ... you speak Spanish? — No, unfortunately I... 3. At what time ... you come to school? 4. ... I come in? 5. You ... not smoke here. 6. ... take your book? — I am afraid not: I need it. 7. He ... not speak English yet. 8. I have very little time: I ... go. 9. They ... not go to the park today because they are busy. 10. You ... read this text: it is easy enough.


TO HAVE TO — ТО BE TO

Необходимость



ТО HAVE TO — вынужденная необходимость

ТО BE TO1 — необходимость по договоренности, плану или приказу

I have to go there. — должен (вынужден)

I am to go there. — должен, предстоит, (договорились, или такое расписание)

I had to go there — пришлось

I was to go there — предстояло

Упр. 480. Переведите на русский язык.

1. I was to wait for her at the railway station.

2. We were to go to the cinema that afternoon.

3. They were to start on Monday. 4. He was to telephone the moment she was out of danger.

5. Roses were to be planted round the pond.

6. There was to be a discussion later on. 7. We were to get there before the others. 8. He was to tell her where to find us. 9. She was to graduate that year. 10. She was to wear that dress at the graduation party. 11. He is to come here at five o'clock. 12. The train was to leave at five-fifteen.



1 TO BE может употребляться как модальный тлагол товд>кс в двух временах: Present Simple и Past Simple.

Упр. 481. Перефразируйте следующие пред­ложения, употребляя модальный глагол to be to.

E.g. 1) The lecture is supposed to begin at eight. The lecture is to begin at eight. 2) I expect her to come and help. She is to come and help. 3) It was planned that we should wait for them at the door. We were to wait for them at the door. 4) It was arranged that he should meet her at the station. He was to meet her at the station. 5) Who will take care of the children? Who is to take care of the children? 1. What am I supposed to do if they come too early? 2 It was arranged that the youngest chil­dren would play on the beach. 3. We expect you to show the place to her. 4. I am expected to leave tomorrow at the latest. 5. Where am I supposed to be taken? 6. This is Dora. It is arranged that she will share the room with you. 7 And who will do the cooking? 8. It is expected that two more apart­ment houses will be built here. 9. It was arranged that the cup final would be played that afternoon. 10. Who will meet you at the station?



Упр. 482. Вставьте модальные глаголы to have to или to be to.

1. She ... to send a telegram because it was too late to send a letter. 2. They decided that she ... to send them a telegram every tenth day. 3. You ... to learn all the new words for the next lesson. 4. Do you know this man? He ... to be our new teacher of history. 5. Who ... to go to the library to get the new books? — I was, but I couldn't be-

cause I ... to finish some work at the phonetic^ laboratory. 6. It is raining. You ... to put on your raincoat. 7. "The patient ... to stay in bed for a few days," ordered the doctor. 8. The child had stomach trouble and ... to take castor oil. 9. I told her she ... to open the window for a while every day. 10. The agreement was that if Johnny White could not repay the money he had borrowed, then Luke Flint ... to have the right to sell the land. 11. If I don't ring up before six o'clock, then you ... to go to the concert hall alone and wait for me at the entrance. Is that clear? 12. The planters ... to gather their cotton at once, as they had been warned that heavy rains were expected. 13. I ... io wear glasses as my eyesight is very weak. 14. John­ny White ... to borrow from Luke Flint at a high interest, for there was no one else in the district who lent money. 15. "Cheating is a very nasty thing,"' said the teacher, "and we ... to get rid of it."

Упр. 483. Вставьте модальные глаголы Iо have to или to be to.

1. Where ... the lecture to take place? — I sup­pose in the assembly hall. 2. So, our plan is as follows: I ... to go to the library and bring the books. You ... to look through all the material here. Later we ... to work together. 3. "You ... to do it alone, without anybody's help," she said sternly. 4. I ... to help my friends with this work now, so I cannot go with you. 5. It was raining hard and we ... to wait until it stopped raining. 6. 1 ... to ask him about it tomorrow, as today he has already gone. 7. Why didn't you tell me that I ... to buy the books? 8. According to the order of the school­mistress all the pupils ... to return the library books before the twenty-third of May. 9. As we had agreed

before, we ... to meet at two o'clock to go to the stadium together. But Mike did not come. I waited for another half-hour, but then I ... to leave as I was afraid to be late. 10. The meeting ... to begin at five o'clock. Don't be late.


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