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Казақстан Республикасы Білім және Ғылым министрлігі

Шәкәрім атындағы Семей мемлекеттік университеті

3 деңгейлі СМЖ құжаты


ОӘК 042-

«Іскерлік шет тілі және іскерлік корреспонденция» пәнінің оқу -әдістемелік кешені

.2.2 т - е языка. Учебник для 2

Басылым №

«Іскерлік шет тілі және іскерлік корреспонденция » пәні бойынша

050207 «Аударма ісі» мамандығына арналған


2013 ж


  1. Глоссарий

  2. Дәріс сабақтары

  3. Практикалық сабақтар

  4. Студенттердің өздік жұмысы


Берілген оқу-әдістемелік материалдарында төмендегі терминдер қолданылған :

  • Addressee

  • after sight

  • account sales

  • air waybill

  • actual weight

  • Bank Comfort Letter

  • bill of exchange

  • bill of entry

  • brake horse-power

  • bill of lading

  • Chamber of Commerce and Industry

  • cost and freight

  • cost and insurance

  • charges forward

  • consular invoice

  • carriage paid

  • charter-party

  • cable transfer

  • cash with order

  • dead freight

  • deadweight

  • free of all average

  • letter of credit

  • limited liability company

  • letter of commitment

  • registered mail

  • return of post

  • SWIFT Сode

  • Uniform Law on the Formation of Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

  • warehouse warrant

  • York-Antwerp rules

2 Дәрістер



Дәріс сабағының м азмұны:

  1. Іскерлік стилінің ерекшеліктері

  2. Құжаттық лингвистиканың негіздері

  3. Іскерлік қатынастар түрлері.

Дәріс конспектілері

The style of official documents is represented by the following substyles or variants:

  • The language of business documents;

  • The language of legal documents;

  • The language of diplomacy;

  • The language of military documents.

Like other styles of language, this style has a definite communicative aim and, has its own system of interrelated language and stylistic means. The aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking and to reach agreement between contracting parties.

Each of the subdivisions of this style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions, which differ from the corresponding terms, phrases and expressions of other variants of this style.

The peculiar features common to all stylistical varieties of official documents are the following:

  • The use of abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions. (There are so many of them that there are special addenda in dictionaries to decode them);

  • The use of words in their logical dictionary meaning;

  • Absence of emotiveness;

  • Definite compositional patterns and design.

It should be noted that the syntactical pattern of this style is as important as the vocabulary.

Translation of legal, economic, diplomatic and official business papers requires not only sufficient knowledge of terms, phrases and expressions, but also depends on the clear comprehension of the structure of a sentence, some specific grammar and syntactical patterns of this style.

Coming across an unknown term in the text a translator can consult a dictionary. Coming across such a phenomenon as the Nominative Absolute Construction, for instance, a translator can find it time-consuming to search for an equivalent conveying its meaning, unless he or she already knows the corresponding pattern.
Өзін-өзі тексеруге арналған сұрақтар:

1. Compare the principles of literary translation and those of official document translation.

2. What is peculiar about the text of official documents?

3. What are the English constructions which cause special difficulties in translation of official documents?

Ұсынылған әдебиеттер:

1. Алексеева. Профессиональный тренинг переводчика,

2. Миньяр-Белоручев. Как стать переводчиком

3. Израилевич. Деловая корреспонденция и документация на английском языке

Дәріс 2.

Business Communication

Дәріс сабағының м азмұны:

1. Особенности подготовки и проведения деловых переговоров и бесед.

2. Подготовка к публичным выступлениям

3. Композиция речи, контакт с аудиторией

Дәріс конспектілері

As Bill Davila knows, the first step in learning to communicate with people from other cultures is to become aware of what culture means. Our awareness of intercultural differences is both useful and necessary in today's world of business.


Person may not realise it, but he belongs to several cultures. The most obvious is the culture he shares with all other people who live in the same country. But this person also belongs to other cultural groups, such as an ethnic group, a religious group, a fraternity or sorority, or perhaps a profession that has its own special lan­guage and customs.

So what exactly is culture? It is useful to define culture as a system of shared symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, and norms for behaviour. Thus all members of a culture have, and tend to act on, similar assumptions about how people should think, behave, and communicate.

Distinct groups that exist within a major culture are more properly re­ferred to as subcultures. Among groups that might be considered subcultures are Mexican Americans in East Los Angeles, Mormons in Salt Lake City, and longshoremen in Montreal. Subcultures without geographic boundaries can be found as well, such as wrestling fans, Russian immigrants, and Harvard M.B.A.s .

Cultures and subcultures vary in several ways that affect intercultural communication:

Stability. Conditions in the culture may be stable or may be changing slowly or rapidly.

Complexity. Cultures vary in the accessibility of information. In North America information is contained in explicit codes, including words, whereas in Japan a great deal of information is conveyed implicitly, through body language, physical context, and the like.

Composition. Some cultures are made up of many diverse and disparate subcultures; others tend to be more homogeneous.

Acceptance. Cultures vary in their attitudes toward outsiders. Some are openly hostile or maintain a detached aloofness. Others are friendly and co-operative toward strangers.

As you can see, cultures vary widely. It's no wonder that most of us need special training before we can become comfortable with a culture other than our own.
Өзін-өзі тексеруге арналған сұрақтар:

1. What are the several ways that affect intercultural communication?

2. What are the major problems in inter-cultural business communication?
Ұсынылған әдебиеттер:

1. Богацкий. Дюканова. Бизнес-курс английского языка,

2. Израилевич. Деловая корреспонденция и документация на английском языке,

3. Потапова. Ключ к деловому успеху

Дәріс 3.

At the office

Дәріс сабағының м азмұны:

  1. Организация

  2. Что значит слушать активно

  3. Демонстрация вежливости

  4. Распознавать и правильно писать английские имена

5. Телефонные штампы

Дәріс конспектілері

Деловое общение всегда целесообразно. А значит и использование языковых средств в деловой речи четко подчинено личностной позиции по определенной проблеме и достижению позитивного результата в решении конкретной проблемы.

Деловое общение, как в своей письменной (деловая корреспонденция и документация), так и устной (деловая речь) формах отличается высокой степенью конвенциональноти, то есть жесткому следованию ряду общепринятых норм и правил, как речевого плана, и тогда мы говорим о речевом этикете, так и общеповеденческого (деловой этикет). Это обусловливает наличие постоянных формулировок, повторяющихся в одной и той же ситуации, например, при открытии совещаний, установления контактов на переговорном процессе и т.д., которые являются характерным признаком этого вида речевой деятельности.

Деловая коммуникация всегда возникает в определенном контексте и оказывается зависимой от него. Конкретная ситуация, в том числе и количество участников, характер поставленных целей, уровни взаимодействия с реципиентами, наделяет ее характерными особенностями, позволяющими выделить несколько форм ее проявления. К ним относятся: деловая беседа, деловое совещание, деловое публичное выступление, или презентация.

Наиболее распространенной и чаще всего применяемой формой деловой коммуникации является деловая беседа. Обычно под деловой беседой понимают межличностное речевое общение нескольких собеседников с целью разрешения определенных деловых проблем или установления деловых отношений.

Коммуниканты находятся в непосредственном речевом и физическом (визуальном) контакте, что обеспечивает мгновенную обратную связь, причем как собственно речевую, так и невербальную. Результаты любого речевого взаимодействия мгновенно проявляются в реакции собеседника, и дальнейшее взаимодействие происходит уже на этой основе, как бы отталкиваясь от нее. Поэтому можно сказать, что межличностное общение обычно носит спонтанный характер, в том плане, что его структура и развитие формируются не до коммуникативного акта, а во время него, спонтанно. Степень подготовленности играет здесь меньшую роль, чем способность адекватно реагировать на все сигналы, посылаемые говорящим. Тем не менее, оно всегда целесообразно, так как собеседники, вступая в коммуникацию, преследуют определенные цели и сообразно им строят данный коммуникативный акт.

Вследствие ограниченного числа участников коммуниканты обладают идеальными возможностями максимально точно сформулировать свое сообщение исходя из интересов и запросов адресата, что потенциально благоприятно влияет на исход коммуникативного акта. В частности, в этом кроется одна из причин того, что собеседники скорее вступают в межличностное взаимодействие, чем в какое-либо другое.

Речевой формой, в которой происходит деловая беседа, является диалог, то есть поочередная смена реплик говорящих, представляющих собой комплексное речевое единство. Высказывания говорящих, хотя и являются спонтанными, строятся по определенной схеме (например, вопрос-ответ) и приобретают смысл только в системе всего диалога. Простейшим примером могут служить эллиптические предложения, не несущие информации вне контекста. Подобным образом единичное монологическое высказывание представляет собой “коммуникативный эллипсис” в рамках всего диалога.

Участвуя в диалоге, мы обычно обмениваемся репликами в той очередности, которая определяется нашими намерениями, зависит от занимаемой в данной ситуации позиции, а также социальной роли. Если мы хотим узнать мнение коллеги по интересующему нас вопросу, мы будем занимать позицию слушающего, предоставляя большую часть времени говорить нашему собеседнику. Если мы обмениваемся новостями, реплики будут распределяться достаточно равномерно. Наконец, социальная роль накладывает свои ограничения на возможность смены реплик: студент не станет перебивать преподавателя на полуслове, чтобы выразить свою точку зрения, как он бы сделал в разговоре с товарищем. Поэтому большое значение в межличностной деловой коммуникации имеет траектория отношений, то есть степень формальности. Отношения с течением времени становятся более глубокими. Они регулируются индивидуально выработанными правилами поведения, являющимися результатом обоюдной договоренности. Отношения в организации редко меняются со временем, характеризуясь высоким уровнем формальности, и регулируются преимущественно социальными нормами. Выбор соответствующей траектории отношений входит в коммуникативную компетентность личности.

Существуют несколько подходов к анализу механизма чередования реплик.

Традиционный подход предполагает, что говорящие ждут конца реплики перед тем, как начать следующую. Он, однако, оставляет необъяснённым отсутствие значительных пауз между репликами.

Проектный подход к анализу смены реплик предполагает, что говорящие используют информацию текущей реплики, чтобы спроектировать её завершение и рассчитать начало своей собственной в определенный момент. Слушающие предсказывают смену реплики посредством мимики, взгляда, синтаксиса и интонации высказывания.

Одной из функций деловой беседы является поддержание деловых контактов и стимулирование деловой активности. Это предполагает формирование межличностных связей у партнеров. В процессе общения у них вырабатывается межличностная система взаимозависимых компонентов и качеств: они определенным образом влияют друг на друга и образуют цельное коммуникативное единство. Эта система регулируется посредством обратной связи, то есть соответствия ситуации принимаемому обоими коммуникантами стандарту. Процесс формирования таких связей может быть как длительным, постепенным, так и мгновенным.

Межличностные связи возникают вследствие различных социальных контактов, т.е. социального взаимодействия. Наше умение и способность общаться напрямую зависит от социального опыта или восприятия, которое основано на выстраивании стимулов, окружающих нас, в значимую структуру. Структура эта определяется культурой. Сюда относится ряд культурных условностей, правил, соглашений, которые воспитываются в нас членами одной социальной группы, к которой мы принадлежим. Таким образом, они накладывают ограничения на нашу коммуникативную гибкость.

Поэтому для того, чтобы успешно взаимодействовать с другими людьми, требуется обширное социальное знание. Как минимум оно включает: оценку ситуации, оценку собеседника, потенциальных взаимоотношений с ним и поведения.

Өзін-өзі тексеруге арналған сұрақтар:

1. В чем состоит суть традиционного подхода механизма анализа реплик?

2. Какая форма коммуникации является эффективной для убеждения собеседника и заполучения его поддержки? Почему?
Ұсынылған әдебиеттер:

1. Богацкий. Дюканова. Бизнес-курс английского языка,

2. Израилевич. Деловая корреспонденция и документация на английском языке,

3. Потапова. Ключ к деловому успеху

Дәріс 4.

Communication and attitude

Дәріс сабағының м азмұны:

  1. Стили управления

  2. Уровни подчинения

  3. Уровни подчинения

  4. Функции языка в рабочей обстановке

  5. Оценка деловых ситуаций

Дәріс конспектілері

Your attitude is the first thing people pick up on in face-to-face communication.6 Just as laughing, yawning, and crying are infectious, attitude is infectious. Before you say a word, your attitudes can infect the people who see you with the same behavior. Somehow just by looking or feeling, you can be infected by another person's attitude, and vice versa. When you are operating from inside a really useful attitude, such as enthusiasm, curiosity, and humility, your body language tends to take care of itself and sends out unmistakable signals of openness.

Perhaps the greatest single stumbling block to real communication is the one-sided nature of speaking. Most of us think of "communicating" as a one-way process. Two monologues do not make a dialogue, however. Exchange between you and your targeted prospect is the key to effective communication. So, listening is an active pursuit for selling your ideas.

What makes people listen? The three basic factors are:

  1. Self-interest;

  2. Who's speaking; and

  3. How they say it.

Understanding the basic principles of how we communicate and why we listen - what works, what doesn't, and why - starts you on the road to a realistic appraisal of what you want to say and how you plan to say it...

Often we have too much difficulty listening to other people because3:

  • we "know" what we are going to hear;

  • we are seeking confirmation, not information;

what's being said is getting in the way of what needs be said

Communication is not just about the words you use. In fact, you communicate more with your gestures and expressions, your body language. "Start to notice your body language, and other people's and see how much you can pick up about what someone saying just by watching them."

Rapport is the first step in good communication. We are all excellent communicators - and still we are misunderstood, for we are not only gifted and creative communicators, we are also gifted and creative receivers. A sender cannot decide what the signal will actually mean to the other person, only what they would like it to mean. When you mean one thing and the other person shows you by their response that they have a different meaning, nobody is wrong and nobody is to blame.

How misunderstandings can be prevented? This is usually done by paying attention to the other person's response. The responses you get give you valuable pointers about what to do next. One NLP presupposition sums this up: "The meaning of the communication is the response you get".

Culture is often at the root of communication challenges. Exploring historical experiences and the ways in which various cultural groups have related to each other is key to opening channels for cross-cultural communication. Becoming more aware of cultural differences, as well as exploring cultural similarities, can help you communicate with others more effectively. Next time you find yourself in a confusing situation, ask yourself how culture may be shaping your own reactions, and try to see the world from the other's point of view.

To work effectively with people, take their preferred style of interaction and decision-making into account. Many misunderstandings derive from differences in style. For example, "Perceivers" may see "Judgers" as unwilling to take the time to explore creative options. Conversely, "Judgers" can become irritated by "Perceivers" who may stray from the agenda.

A Mental Map is a powerful way of expressing the though patterns, pictures and associations that already exist in the brain. Different people take in the world through different senses. People have different preferred ways of thinking and communicating their experiences - some express themselves in pictures, others talk about how things sound to them, and others speak about how things feel. If you want to connect with them, you have to figure out which sense they favor.

Өзін-өзі тексеруге арналған сұрақтар:

1. What is rapport?

2. What makes people listen?

Ұсынылған әдебиеттер:

1. Богацкий. Дюканова. Бизнес-курс английского языка,

2. Израилевич. Деловая корреспонденция и документация на английском языке,

3. Потапова. Ключ к деловому успеху

Дәріс 5.

Nonverbal communication
Дәріс сабағының м азмұны:

  1. Что означает общение

  2. Невербальное общение

  3. Контакт глазами. Расстояние между собеседниками

  4. Жесты. Выражения лица. Интонация

  5. Различия в межнациональном общении

Дәріс конспектілері

Nonverbal communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. Such messages can be communicated through gesture; body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact; object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture; symbols and infographics. Speech may also contain nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, emotion and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the use of emoticons.

However, much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on face-to-face interaction, where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where communication takes place, the physical characteristics of the communicators, and behaviors of communicators during interaction.

Scholars in this field usually use a strict sense of the term "verbal", meaning "of or concerned with words," and do not use "verbal communication" as a synonym for oral or spoken communication. Thus, vocal sounds that are not considered to be words, such as a grunt, or singing a wordless note, are nonverbal. Sign languages and writing are generally understood as forms of verbal communication, as both make use of words — although like speech, both may contain paralinguistic elements and often occur alongside nonverbal messages. Nonverbal communication can occur through any sensory channelsight, sound, smell, touch or taste. NVC is important as:

"When we speak (or listen), our attention is focused on words rather than body language. But our judgement includes both. An audience is simultaneously processing both verbal and nonverbal cues. Body movements are not usually positive or negative in and of themselves; rather, the situation and the message will determine the appraisal."

The first scientific study of nonverbal communication was Charles Darwin's book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). He argued that all mammals show emotion reliably in their faces. Studies now range across a number of fields, including sex linguistics, semiotics and social psychology.

While much nonverbal communication is based on arbitrary symbols, which differ from culture to culture, a large proportion is also to some extent iconic and may be universally understood. Paul Ekman's influential 1960s studies of facial expression determined that expressions of anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness and surprise are universal.

Uniforms have both a functional and a communicative purpose. This man's clothes identify him as male and a police officer; his badges and shoulder sleeve insignia give information about his job and rank.

Elements such as physique, height, weight, hair, skin color, gender, odors, and clothing send nonverbal messages during interaction. For example, research into height has generally found that taller people are perceived as being more impressive. Melamed & Bozionelos (1992) studied a sample of managers in the UK and found that height was a key factor affecting who was promoted. Often people try to make themselves taller, for example, standing on a platform, when they want to make more of an impact with their speaking.

Environmental factors such as furniture, architectural style, interior decorating, lighting conditions, colors, temperature, noise, and music affect the behavior of communicators during interactionPosture can be used to determine a participant’s degree of attention or involvement, the difference in status between communicators, and the level of fondness a person has for the other communicator.[7] Studies investigating the impact of posture on interpersonal relationships suggest that mirror-image congruent postures, where one person’s left side is parallel to the other’s right side, leads to favorable perception of communicators and positive speech; a person who displays a forward lean or a decrease in a backwards lean also signify positive sentiment during communication.[8] Posture is understood through such indicators as direction of lean, body orientation, arm position, and body openness.

A gesture is a non-vocal bodily movement intended to express meaning. They may be articulated with the hands, arms or body, and also include movements of the head, face and eyes, such as winking, nodding, or rolling one's eyes. The boundary between language and gesture, or verbal and nonverbal communication, can be hard to identify.

According to Ottenheimer (2007), psychologists Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen suggested that gestures could be categorised into five types: emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators, and adaptors.

  • Emblems are gestures with direct verbal translations, such as a goodbye wave;

  • illustrators are gestures that depict what is said verbally, such as turning an imaginary steering wheel while talking about driving;

  • an affect display is a gesture that conveys emotions, like a smile;

  • regulators are gestures that control interaction;

  • and finally, an adaptor is a gesture that facilitates the release of bodily tension, such as quickly moving one's leg.[9]

Gestures can be also be categorised as either speech-independent or speech-related. Speech-independent gestures are dependent upon culturally accepted interpretation and have a direct verbal translation.[10] A wave hello or a peace sign are examples of speech-independent gestures. Speech related gestures are used in parallel with verbal speech; this form of nonverbal communication is used to emphasize the message that is being communicated. Speech related gestures are intended to provide supplemental information to a verbal message such as pointing to an object of discussion.

Gestures such as Mudra (Sanskrit) encode sophisticated information accessible to initiates that are privy to the subtlety of elements encoded in their tradition.
Өзін-өзі тексеруге арналған сұрақтар:

1. What is the purpose of uniforms?

2. How can gestures be also categorized?

3. What is non-verbal communication?

Ұсынылған әдебиеттер:

1. Богацкий. Дюканова. Бизнес-курс английского языка,

2. Израилевич. Деловая корреспонденция и документация на английском языке,

3. Потапова. Ключ к деловому успеху

Дәріс 6.

Work attitudes
Дәріс сабағының м азмұны:

  1. Общение внутри офиса

  2. Решение конфликтов

  3. Рабочая характеристика – оценка (навыки)

  4. Как управлять конфликтами

Дәріс конспектілері
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